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Healthy PSCs are quiescent and store retinol (vitamin A) in their cytoplasm; however, during pancreatic cancer progression, they lose retinol droplets and acquire an activated myofibroblast-like contractile phenotype.

When PSCs are exposed to exogenous TGF-β, myofibroblastic markers such as contractility marker α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) are activated, and PSCs increase ECM deposition, particularly fibronectin and collagen type-I.

In this study, we characterised the ability of PSCs to organise LTBP-1 in the ECM and mechanically activate TGF-β.

We show that ATRA down regulates this process through a mechanism involving myosin II-dependent contractility and β1 integrins.

As a result of fibronectin knockdown, LTBP-1/fibronectin co-localisation and fibril thickness were significantly decreased (Fig. Similarly, ATRA reduces expression of cell contractility marker vimentin in PSCs seeded on LTBP-1 rich matrices (Fig. Therefore, to understand the association between PSC contractility and LTBP-1 organisation in our system, control or ATRA treated PSCs were seeded on LTBP-1 rich matrices as previous.

In general, only the information that you provide, or the choices you make while visiting a web site, can be stored in a cookie.Furthermore, LTBP-1 and fibronectin co-localisation was significantly reduced with ATRA treatment compared to vehicle treated PSCs (p Preparation of LTBP-1 rich ECM and LTBP-1/fibronectin co-localisation by PSCs (a) HEK-293 were seeded on coverslips and transfected with LTBP-EGFP.After 7 days of culture, HEK-293 cells were removed with DOC buffer and replaced by PSCs which secrete fibronectin (FN) into the HEK-293-generated ECM.For example, the site cannot determine your email name unless you choose to type it.Allowing a website to create a cookie does not give that or any other site access to the rest of your computer, and only the site that created the cookie can read it.

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