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Progress in this field has been hampered by the lack of genome-wide information on sex differences in gene expression and in particular splicing in the human brain.Here we address this issue by using post-mortem adult human brain and spinal cord samples originating from 137 neuropathologically confirmed control individuals to study whole-genome gene expression and splicing in 12 CNS regions.Hypothalamus (boxed) is the only brain region showing significant sex-biased gene expression.(c) Gene structure of NRXN3 and expression levels (y axis) plotted for each probe set (x axis) covering NRXN3 in males (blue line) and females (red line) in thalamus.(b) RSPO1 expression in women (red) and men (blue) in the human CNS.

This data set is particularly valuable because (i) it is large with post-mortem samples originating from 137 neuropathologically confirmed control individuals (Supplementary Data 1 and 2), (ii) up to 12 central nervous system (CNS) regions have been sampled from each individual and (iii) transcriptome profiling was performed using the Affymetrix Human Exon 1.0 ST Array, which features 1.4 million probe sets assaying expression across each individual exon.In total we analysed 1,182 post-mortem brain samples dissected from frontal cortex, occipital cortex (BA17, primary visual cortex), temporal cortex, intralobular white matter, thalamus, putamen, substantia nigra, hippocampus, hypothalamus, medulla, cerebellar cortex and spinal cord.These samples originated from 137 individuals of which 101 were male and 36 were female.The issue of differences between the ‘male brain’ and ‘female brain’ has been endlessly debated in the psychological literature and popular press.Sex differences in human brain structure, neurochemistry, behaviour and susceptibility to neurodegenerative and neuropsychiatric disease have all been reported.

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